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Fit for 55 ?

The "Fit for 55" programme is a key set of EU legislative proposals designed to implement the EU's ambition to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels.


This programme is essential to achieving climate neutrality by 2050, in line with the Paris Climate Agreement and the European Green Deal.


The Fit for 55 programme covers a wide range of sectors, including energy, industry, transport and buildings, and involves a significant review and update of existing EU climate and energy legislation.


The main proposals include


1. Revision of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)

The new legislation adopted in April 2023 aims to strengthen the EU Emissions Trading Scheme by reducing the total number of emission allowances available, in order to increase the price of carbon and encourage emissions reductions. The EU ETS, which accounts for around 40% of total EU emissions, has established itself as the main tool for reducing emissions. Since its introduction in 2005, it has led to a 41% reduction in emissions in the sectors it covers.


2. Sharing the effort

National emission reduction targets for sectors not covered by the EU ETS will be reviewed and strengthened to ensure that all Member States contribute equally to the collective effort to reduce emissions.


3. Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF)

The proposal aims to increase CO2 absorption by natural sinks, such as forests, by strengthening the rules on land use and forestry.

The new regulation, adopted in March 2023, sets an overall EU-wide target of 310 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent of net removals in the LULUCF sector by 2030.


4. Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)

This mechanism entered into force in its transitional phase on 1 October 2023. Its aim is to prevent carbon leakage by introducing a carbon tax, equivalent to that applied to European manufacturers of these products, on imports of certain goods from outside the EU in carbon-intensive sectors.

Initially, this mechanism will apply to steel, cement, aluminium, nitrogen fertilisers and hydrogen.

5. Revision of the Renewable Energy Directive

The new Renewable Energy Directive, adopted in October 2023, aims to increase the share of renewable energy in overall EU energy consumption to 42.5% by 2030, with an additional indicative target of 2.5% to help reach the 45% target.

Each Member State will contribute to this common target.


6. Revision of the Energy Efficiency Directive

Adopted in July 2023, this new Directive stipulates that Member States will collectively ensure a reduction in final energy consumption of at least 11.7% in 2030 compared to the energy consumption forecasts for 2030 drawn up in 2020.

This translates into an upper limit of 763 million tonnes of oil equivalent for EU final energy consumption and 993 million tonnes of oil equivalent for primary energy consumption.


7. Infrastructure for alternative fuels

In July 2023, the European Council adopted a new law to develop the infrastructure needed to supply alternative fuels, such as electric charging stations and hydrogen refuelling stations.

For example, from 2025, fast-charging stations of at least 150 kW for cars and vans must be installed every 60 km along the EU's main transport corridors, forming the "trans-European transport network (TEN-T)".


8. Revision of the regulation on CO2 emission performance standards for cars and vans

This measure adopted in March 2023 aims to accelerate the transition to zero-emission vehicles in 2035, by setting stricter emissions standards for new cars and vans.

For new cars, the aim is to reduce emissions by 15% between 2025 and 2029 (compared with a baseline of 95gCO2/km) and by 55% between 2030 and 2034.


The Fit for 55 programme is therefore a central element in the EU's effort to become the first carbon-neutral continent by 2050, by aligning its legislation with its climate ambitions. It represents a major challenge, particularly in social terms, but also a considerable opportunity to modernise the EU economy, stimulate green innovation and ensure a fair and inclusive transition for all European citizens.




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